Physicochemical Parameters and Toxic Heavy Metals Concentration in Coffee

Main Article Content

Eltigani Osman Musa Omer
Osama Ahmed Labib
Mubashir Zafar

Abstract

Background and Objective: Coffee is one of the common drinks in Middle Eastern countries including Saudi Arabia due to its desirable aroma, taste and putative positive physiological functions. The concentration of metals is commonly present in coffee powder. The presence of heavy metal concentration in different brands of coffee powder available in Saudi Arabia market has been analyzed.

Methods: Thirteen different coffee brands were selected in different markets, all assessment was carried out in advanced instruments such as Inductively Coupled Plasma and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. There are 14 metals which divide into seven non toxic and seven toxic metals were analyzed. Non toxic metals are calcium (Ca), iron (Fe),magnesium (Mg), Magnese (Mn), Potassium (K), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), and toxic metals are arsenic (Ar), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), antimony and cadmium (Cd).

Results: The mean and standard deviation of non-toxic and toxic metals concentration in different samples of coffee were as follows: Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Na were 24.87±6.76, 6.670±4.88, 235.98±100.05, 407.02±22.56, 8.63±10.14, 0.01±0.01, 333.86±247.35 respectively. Toxic metals concentration were as Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Si, Zn were   11.04±10.03, 0.80 ±2.52, 2.43±3.02, 0.07±0.11, 7.57±9.26,  23.48±27.32  and 1.853±1.66 respectively. These concentration values were high compared to threshold limit values (TLVs) of metals.

Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that coffee powder had high concentration of heavy toxic metals which is the major public health problem. Thus, quality control for food safety recommended during production of coffee.

Keywords:
Coffee, daily intake, concentration, metals, toxic

Article Details

How to Cite
Omer, E., Labib, O., & Zafar, M. (2019). Physicochemical Parameters and Toxic Heavy Metals Concentration in Coffee. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 3(3), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i330094
Section
Original Research Article

References

Wagesho Y, Chandravanshi BS. Levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale) cultivated in Ethiopia. Springer Plus. 2015;4:127.

Hiroyuki KT, Kazunobu S, Takeji T. Analysis of Iodinelike (Chlorine) flavor-causing components in Brazilian coffee with Rio Flavor. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 2011;17(4):347–352.

Ostrowska J, Stankiewcz A, Skrzydlewska E, Antioxidant properties of green tea. Bromotol. Toxicol. Chem. 2001;2:131.

Chandra S, De Mejia Gonzalez E. Polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and quinone reductase activity of an aqueous extract of Ardisia compressa in comparison to mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and green (Camellia sinensis) teas. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004; 52:3583‐3589.

Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, Wu ZG, Li YH, Chen H, Zhu JQ, Jin XJ, Wouters BC, Zhao J. Cholesterol lowering effect of a theaflavin‐enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial. Arch. Intern. Med. 2003;163:1448‐1453.

Hasegawa R, Chujo T, Sai‐Kato K, Umemura T, Tanimura A, Kurokawa Y. Preventive effects of green tea against liver oxidative DNA damage and hepatotoxicity in rats treated with 2‐nitropropane. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1995; 33:961‐970.

Fujiki H. Green tea: Health benefits as cancer preventive for humans. Chem. Rec. 2005;5:119‐132.

Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, Castagnetti G, Peracchia G, Corti A. Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with highgrade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: A preliminary report from a one‐year proof‐of‐ principle study. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1234‐1240.

Seenivasan S, Manikandan N, Muraleedharan NN, Selvasundaram R. Heavy metal content of black teas from south India, Food Control. 2008;19: 746‐749.

Álvarez-Ayuso E, Giménez A, Ballesteros JC. Fluoride accumulation by plants grown in acid soils amended with flue gas desulphurisation gypsum. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2011;192(3):1659–1666.

Tan Z, Xiao G. Leaching characteristics of fly ash from Chinese medical waste incineration. Waste Management and Research. 2012;30(3):285–294.

Fujimaki Hayacibara M, Queiroz CS, Machado Tabchoury CP, Aparecido Cury J. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages. Revista de Saude Publica. 2004;38(1):100–105.

Lung SCC, Cheng HW, Fu CB. Potential exposure and risk of fluoride intakes from tea drinks produced in Taiwan. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 2008;18(2): 158–166.

Wang XP, Ma YJ, Xu YC. Studies on contents of arsenic, selenium, mercury and bismuth in tea samples collected from different regions by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Guang Pu, Xue Yu, Guang Pu, Fen Xi. 2008;28(7):1653–1657

Han WY, Zhao FJ, Shi YZ, Ma LF, Ruan JY. Scale and causes of lead contamination in Chinese tea. Environmental Pollution. 2006;139(1);125–132.

Shekoohiyan, Ghoochani M, Mohagheghian A, Mahvi AH, Yunesian M, Nazmara S. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering. 2012;9:37-42.

Tang D, Li TY, Liu JJ, et al. Effects of prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants on children's development in China. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2008;116(5):674–679.

Sears ME, Genuis SJ. Environmental determinants of chronic disease and medical approaches: Recognition, avoidance, supportive therapy and detoxification. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2012;3(15).

Lidsky TI and Schneider JS. Lead neurotoxicity in children: Basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. Brain. 2003;126(1):5–19.

Genuis SJ, Schwalfenberg G, Siy AK, Rodushkin I. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations. PLoS One. 2012;7(11).

Rahman MA, Rahman B, Ahmed N. High blood manganese in iron-deficient children in Karachi. Public Health Nutrition. 2013;16(9):1677–1683.

Crinella FM. Does soy-based infant formula cause ADHD? Update and public policy considerations,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 2012;12(4):395–407.

Klag MJ, Wang NY, Meoni LA, et al. Coffee intake and risk of hypertension. The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:657–62.

Ramato Ashu. Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi. Concentration levels of metals in commercially available ethiopian roasted coffee powders and their infusions" Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2011;25(1):11-24.

Grembecka M, Malinowska E, Szefer P. Differentiation of market coffee and its infusions in view of their mineral composition. Sci. Total Environ. 2007;383: 59.

Nędzarek A, Tórz A, Karakiewicz B, Clark JS, Laszczyńska M, Kaleta A, Adler G.

Concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Ag, Pb) in coffee. Acta Biochim. Polonica. 2013;60:623–627.

Dos Santos JS, Dos Santos MLP, Conti MM, Dos Santos SN, De Oliveira E. Evaluation of some metals in Brazilian coffees cultivated during the process of conversion from conventional to organic agriculture. Food Chem. 2009;115:1405–1410.

Offsetdrukkerij Haveka BV. Alblasserdam coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study. Oms lag Pieter-Jan Kersbergen; 2004. [Online].
Available:www.who.int/cofee.
(Access on 20/02/2019)

Wagesho Y, Chandravanshi BS. Levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale) cultivated in Ethiopia. Springer Plus. 2015;4:127.

Ayele E, Urga K, Chandravanshi BS. Effect of cooking temperature on mineral contentand antinutritional factors of yam and taro grown in southern Ethiopia. Int. J. Food Eng. 2015;11:371–382.

Weldegebriel Y, Chandravanshi BS, Wondimu T. Concentration levels of metals in vegetables grown in soils irrigated with river water in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2012;77:57–63.

Illy, E. The complexity of coffee. Sci. Am. 2002;286:86–91.

Anderson KA, Smith BW. Chemical profiling to differentiate geographic growing originsof coffee. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002;50:2068–2075.

Suseela B, Bhalke S, Kumar AV, Tripathi RM, Sastry VN. Daily intake of tracemetals through coffee consumption in India. Food Addit. Contam. 2001;18:115–120.

Gebretsadik AT, Berhanu T, Kefarge B. Levels of selected essential and nonessential metals in roasted coffee beans of Yirgacheffe and Sidama, Ethiopia. Am. J. Environ. Protect. 2015; 4:188–192.

Ashu R, Chandravanshi BS. Concentration levels of metals in commercially available

Ethiopian roasted coffee powders and their infusions. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2011; 25:11–24.

Horžić D, Komes D, Belščak A, Kovačević Ganić K, Iveković D, Karlović D. The composition of polyphenols and methylxanthines in teas and herbal infusions. Food Chemistry. 1994;115:441–448.

Postupci priprave I, Izolacije Organskih Spojeva, Školska Knjiga, Zagreb Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, et all. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolourisation assay. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2000; 26:1231–1237.