Alkaline Leaching of Metals from Cathodic Materials of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries

Main Article Content

Nango Gaye
Rokhaya Sylla Gueye
Jérôme Ledauphin
Mamadou Balde
Matar Seck
Alassane Wele
Mahy Diaw

Abstract

The aim of this study was to recover metals from the positive electrode material for recycling in lithium-ion batteries. It was focused on research to optimize the hydrometallurgical pretreatment process of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries by varying parameters such as NaOH concentration, the ratio of solvent volume to mass of the test sample (liquid-solid ratio (L/S)) and reaction time. Thus, from used batteries collected in a local market (Colobane, Senegal), cathodic materials dried in an oven at 50°C for 24 hours, submitted to alkaline leaching with NaOH 2, 3 or 4N, followed by filtration, all at room temperature. The filtrates obtained were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained were showed that Al collectors could be better extracted with 4N NaOH for 5 hours at a ratio liquid/solid (L/S) = 10/1, with small quantities of the metals Co, Mn, Ni and Li found in the filtrates.

Keywords:
Batteries, lithium-ion, alkaline leaching, recycling

Article Details

How to Cite
Gaye, N., Gueye, R., Ledauphin, J., Balde, M., Seck, M., Wele, A., & Diaw, M. (2019). Alkaline Leaching of Metals from Cathodic Materials of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 3(2), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i230088
Section
Original Research Article

References

Zheng X, Gao W, Zhang X, He M, Lin X, Cao H, Zhang Y, Sun Z. Spent lithium-ion battery recycling – Reductive ammonia leaching of metals from cathode scrap by sodium sulphite, Waste Management. 2017;60:680–688. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2016.12.007

Jha MK, Kumari A, Jha AK, Kumar V, Hait J, Pandey BD. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone, Waste Management. 2013;33:1890–1897. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2013.05.008

Historique de la batterie | Batteries Accus AJS, (n.d.).
Available:http://www.accus-ajs.com/historique-de-la-batterie/ (Accessed: December 11, 2018)

Nayl AA, Elkhashab RA, Badawy SM, El-Khateeb MA. Acid leaching of mixed spent Li-ion batteries. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2017;10:S3632–S3639.
DOI:10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.04.001

Leridon H. Chaire Développement durable – Environnement, énergie et société: Année académique 2008-2009, La lettre du Collège de France. 2009;9.
DOI:10.4000/lettre-cdf.501

Gao W, Liu C, Cao H, Zheng X, Lin X, Wang H, Zhang Y, Sun Z. Comprehensive evaluation on effective leaching of critical metals from spent lithium-ion batteries, Waste Management. 2018;75:477–485.
DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.02.023

Wang X, Gaustad G, Babbitt CW, Bailey C, Ganter MJ, Landi BJ. Economic and environmental characterization of an evolving Li-ion battery waste stream. Journal of Environmental Management. 2014;135:126–134. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.01.021

Zeng G, Deng X, Luo S, Luo X, Zou J. A copper-catalyzed bioleaching process for enhancement of cobalt dissolution from spent lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2012;199–200:164–169.
DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.10.063

Xiaohong Zheng, Zhu Z, Lin X, Zhang Y, He Y, Cao H, Sun Z. A mini-review on metal recycling from spent lithium ion batteries. Engineering. 2018;4:361–370.
DOI:10.1016/j.eng.2018.05.018.

Meng Q, Zhang Y, Dong P. Use of glucose as reductant to recover Co from spent lithium ions batteries, Waste Management. 2017;64:214–218. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2017.03.017

Chen, L Tang X, Zhang Y, Li L, Zeng Z, Zhang Y. Process for the recovery of cobalt oxalate from spent lithium-ion batteries, Hydrometallurgy. 2011;108:80–86.
DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2011.02.010

Ordoñez J, Gago EJ, Girard A. Processes and technologies for the recycling and recovery of spent lithium-ion batteries, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016;60:195–205.
DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.363

Chen X, Chen Y, Zhou T, Liu D, Hu H, Fan S. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries. Waste Management. 2015;38:349–356.
DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2014.12.023.

Peng C, Hamuyuni J, Wilson BP, Lundström M. Selective reductive leaching of cobalt and lithium from industrially crushed waste Li-ion batteries in sulfuric acid system. Waste Management. 2018; 76:582–590. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.02.052

Guo Y, Li F, Zhu H, Li G, Huang J, He W. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl). Waste Management. 2016;51:227–233.
DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2015.11.036

Contestabile M, Panero S, Scrosati B. A laboratory-scale lithium-ion battery recycling process. Journal of Power Sources. 2001;92:65–69.
DOI:10.1016/S0378-7753(00)00523-1

Chen X, Ma H, Luo C, Zhou T. Recovery of valuable metals from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries using mild phosphoric acid, Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2017;32:677–86.
DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.12.021

Vieceli N, Nogueira CA, Guimarães C, Pereira MFC, Durão FO, Margarid F. Hydrometallurgical recycling of lithium-ion batteries by reductive leaching with sodium metabisulphite, Waste Management. 2018; 71:350–361. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2017.09.032

Nayaka GP, Pai KV, Santhosh G, Manjanna J. Dissolution of cathode active material of spent Li-ion batteries using tartaric acid and ascorbic acid mixture to recover Co, Hydrometallurgy. 2016; 161:54–57. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2016.01.026

Li J, Yang X, Yin Z. Recovery of manganese from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries and synthesis of lithium ion-sieve. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2018;6:6407–6413. DOI:10.1016/j.jece.2018.09.044.

Zhao JM, Shen XY, Deng FL, Wang FC, Wu Y, Liu HZ. Synergistic extraction and separation of valuable metals from waste cathodic material of lithium ion batteries using Cyanex272 and PC-88A, Separation and Purification Technology. 2011;78:345–351.
DOI:10.1016/j.seppur.2010.12.024

Kang J, Senanayake G, Sohn J, Shin SM. Recovery of cobalt sulfate from spent lithium ion batteries by reductive leaching and solvent extraction with Cyanex 272, Hydrometallurgy. 2010;100: 168–171.
DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2009.10.010.

Joo SH, Shin SM, Shin D, Oh C, Wang JP. Extractive separation studies of manganese from spent lithium battery leachate using mixture of PC88A and Versatic 10 acid in kerosene, Hydrometallurgy. 2015;156;136–141.
DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.06.002.

Pranolo Y, Zhang W, Cheng CY. Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion battery leach solutions with a mixed solvent extractant system, Hydrometallurgy. 2010; 10:237–42. DOI:10.1016/j.hydromet.2010.01.007

Chen X, Xu B, Zhou T, Liu D, Hu H, Fan S. Separation and recovery of metal values from leaching liquor of mixed-type of spent lithium-ion batteries, Separation and Purification Technology. 2015;144:197–205.
DOI:10.1016/j.seppur.2015.02.006

Ferreira DA, Prados LMZ, Majuste D, Mansur MB. Hydrometallurgical separation of aluminium, cobalt, copper and lithium from spent Li-ion batteries. Journal of Power Sources. 2009;187:238–246.
DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.10.077.
Couples_redox.pdf, (n.d.).
Available:http://mslp.ac-dijon.fr/IMG/pdf/couples_redox.pdf (Accessed January 18, 2019).